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A Swiss-style lathe is a specific design of lathe providing extreme accuracy (sometimes holding tolerances as small as a few tenths of a thousandth of an inch—a few micrometers). A Swiss-style lathe holds the workpiece with both a collet and a guide bushing. The collet sits behind the guide bushing, and the tools sit in front of the guide bushing, holding stationary on the Z axis. To cut lengthwise along the part, the tools will move in and the material itself will move back and forth along the Z axis. This allows all the work to be done on the material near the guide bushing where it is more rigid, making them ideal for working on slender workpieces as the part is held firmly with little chance of deflection or vibration occurring. This style of lathe is commonly used under CNC control.
The vertical machining center is one type of CNC machining center which is developed from the CNC milling machine. CNC vertical machining center is also called CNC VMC. The biggest difference from the CNC milling machine is that the machining center has the ability to automatically exchange machining tools. By installing tools for different purposes on the tool magazine, the machining tools on the spindle can be changed by the automatic tool changer in one clamping to realize multiple machining. CNC machining centre is a highly automatic multifunctional system tool, which may be divided into horizontal machining centre and vertical machining centre. Today we mainly discuss the vertical machining center.
Motion is controlled along multiple axes, normally at least two (X and Y), and a tool spindle that moves in the Z (depth). The position of the tool is driven by motors through a series of step-down gears in order to provide highly accurate movements, or in modern designs, direct-drive stepper motor or servo motors. Open-loop control works as long as the forces are kept small enough and speeds are not too great. On commercial metalworking machines closed loop controls are standard and required in order to provide the accuracy, speed, and repeatability demanded. As the controller hardware evolved, the mills themselves also evolved. As technology evolves, CNC lathe has been rapidly replacing older versions of lathes because of convenient use, easy installation & durability. Once the CNC machine has been pre-arranged, they can continuously driving parts with little supervision by the operator.
Additionally, as many Swiss lathes incorporate a secondary spindle, or ‘sub-spindle’, they also incorporate ‘live tooling’. Live tools are rotary cutting tools that are powered by a small motor independently of the spindle motor(s). Live tools increase the intricacy of components that can be manufactured by the Swiss lathe. For instance, automatically producing a part with a hole drilled perpendicular to the main axis (the axis of rotation of the spindles) is very economical with live tooling, and similarly uneconomical if done as a secondary operation after machining by the Swiss lathe is complete. A ‘secondary operation’ is a machining operation requiring a partially completed part to be secured in a second machine to complete the manufacturing process. Generally, advanced CAD/CAM software uses live tools in addition to the main spindles so that most parts that can be drawn by a CAD system can actually be manufactured by the machines that the CAD/CAM software support. Find additional info at https://www.jsway-cnc.com/.